Victor Vroom proposed the expectancy theory of motivation (Mullins 2007). According to this theory if a person expects to be rewarded he will definitely put in efforts at the task he is performing (DuBrin 2008, 389). The motivation for the employees would be their expectation of the reward they would receive in the case of them performing extraordinarily well. A person will be motivated as much as he wishes for something and as much as he expects to get it.
This theory applies to Alan in the current case. He had been working determinedly and honestly since three years as he expected a raise or promotion, the expectancy theory having a role here. He actually had such expectations because the company he was working at, InsureCo, had a good reputation as an employer. Such a reputation was due to the fact that the company valued its employees and had the element of job security and development of its people. However, finally he started having doubts of any improvement in his career if he stayed at the same company, and this was after his expectations were proven wrong. The expectancy theory no longer was applicable because Alan could see that he had not been rewarded up till now and thus did not expect anything from the organization anymore.